Climate change and its effect


Iqra Syed and Zainab Asif


Over the years the phenomenon of climate change has evolved from an environmental issue to a serious security challenge. The average surface temperature of the world has increased which results in change in precipitation patterns, retreat of glaciers and sea-ice, warming of oceans and increase number of heat waves. Evidences revealed that the environmental change is due to increased concentration of green house gasses, burning of fossil fuels, increasing livestock farming, excessive use of fertilizers, use of aerosol sprays and many more. Greenhouse gasses include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and other fluorinated gasses.

Pakistan’s greenhouse gas emissions have double in last two decades. On global scale, Pakistan ranks 135th in per capita GHG emission in the world. Agriculture sector is the victim of abrupt climate change in country. Almost all the causes of climate change are due to human activities. Human are cutting down trees, burning of fossil fuels at alarming rate and using a lot of fertilizers. Due to these anthropogenic activities ozone layer is also depleting. Climate change is impacting every region of the globe. Changes in precipitation patterns have caused dry region to get more drier and wet ones to get wetter, resulting in floods, droughts and lower crop yields.

The impact of climate change may change the ecosystem functioning as the physiology of species is effected by change in temperature and availability of water.

The ecosystem functioning depends on the relationship between carbon dioxide fixation, respiration, photosynthesis and nitrification etc. the change in climate influence the ecosystem functioning by reducing biodiversity due to extinction of species. Also, opportunistic and invasive species will dominate and their ranges will be extended in comparison to endemic or native species. It cause change in distribution, reproduction timing, growing season and extinction rates.

Pakistan is already facing different developmental and security challenges and an addition of climate change makes the matrix even more complex. Therefore, a collective effort by state, society and international community is indispensible. The possible solutions to climate change are;

  • More and more tress should be planted.
  • Renewable power sources should be adopted.
  • Misuse of fertilizers should be avoided.
  • Use of aerosol sprays should be minimized.
  • Conservation practices should be adopted regarding agriculture.


Authors are students of PMAS-Arid Agricultural university