The Charismatic Role of Imam Khomeini and Islamic Revolution
By Shamshad Mangat
Islamic Revolution is a great event in the history that had transformed the whole Iranian society. About forty years ago the founder of the Islamic Revolution Imam Khomeini returned to the Iranian capital on February, after a 15-year exile and established an Islamic Republic in Iran. It said that the Islamic Revolution had toppled the Shah’s dictatorial regime and ended centuries of monarchy in the country. Islamic Revolution was not only a major event for Iran but for the entire region which had changed the entire course of history.
The Islamic Revolution was the outcome of the long struggle of the oppressed Iranian nation. Imam Khomeini had led the Iranian nation in a difficult time and achieved the victory in the form of Islamic Revolution despite strong opposition from world powers.
The immense pressure of the people US-backed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi had to leave the country with his family members.
On February 1st 1979 when Imam Khomeini returned from exile he was received a welcome from millions of Iranians, return of Imam Khomeini was a big victory of the Iranian nation and the event had stunned the whole world.
It said that people of Iran got fed up with the Shah’s regime and they were not happy with the uneven distribution of wealth in the Iranian society and dictatorial government in country. Shah considered himself as a liberal and termed Islam as a hurdle in the progress of Iran which was not acceptable to the Iranian nation.
The riots started in 1977 had led to full fledge Islamic Revolution which established an Islamic government in Iran.
The people of Iran had termed Shah as a civilian dictator and corrupt ruler and even called him as a puppet of the US. It said that capitalism had created many economic difficulties in Iran before the Islamic Revolution.
Imam Khomeini during his exile was more close to the people of Iran than Shah and the message of Imam Khomeini went through the whole Iranian society, his utmost to curb the revolt in Iran but ultimately had to surrender before the Islamic Revolution.
Iran’s Islamic revolution was a large emerging phenomenon in the modern era undoubtedly which was led by the charismatic leadership and charisma and great development in the field of international relations and political equations created the world’ governments that the effects of it can be seen even now in the region and the world. The historic leader was at a time of crisis and affected the political and economic problems.
Islam made the cultural gap between the people and the policy of Shah’s rule. Cultural contradictions were evident in society. Corruption, repression, vans and undermining the political legitimacy of the regime, injustice and social inequality, subservience to America and the influence of external forces against the king and his government’s popularity had slipped.
In this context, Imam Khomeini came to the scene of the struggle against shah and unswerving and stand great courage against Shah and his government. They remained steadfast in rejecting compromise with Shah or the Pahlavi dynasty; in any case, this time from senior politicians distinguished the clergymen Imam considered Islam and Islamic government as a solution to the problems facing the community.
He urged the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime and the Islamic revolution and the essential prerequisite for the realization of the vision of the divine and Islamic values, freedom and independence. Imam Khomeini won the support of the broad masses and the supremacy found the charismatic.
Undoubtedly, according to symptoms and traits that Max Weber has mentioned for supremacy charisma, Imam Khomeini in. Iran’s political scene was appeared as a charismatic character.
His charismatic authority was based on his personal charm. Imam was as a mystic sect and had no effect on her earthly manifestations of piety and gravity and was the true holy man.
In addition to the characters look fantastic and exceptional followers and disciples, because the descendants of the prophet and Imam and as deputy of Imam Mahdi (AS) of dignity and status in. the eyes of the Iranian people were great.
People saw them as saviors and national heroes. But what made this sacred character in. the minds of his followers more popular and more fantastic was the element of struggle and their opposition to the dictatorial regime.
Islam policy against Shah, repression and oppression of the regime, foreign dependence and the prevalence of corruption, administrative and ethical and so on led critical situation for Iran. People need to feel they have a charismatic leader.
It features a charismatic leader who could save them from the crisis and its intention to their goals. Imam Khomeini, in such circumstances, respond to people’s demand and expect. He offered a solution to the current crisis and had great popularity among people. These reasons led them fought hard to support and willing to sacrifice for the sake of his goals.
It should be noted that three types of legitimate rule, the traditional, legal and charismatic Max Weber explained that the world beyond the mind with precise criteria cannot be found; sometimes the three types of sovereignty are intertwined in a person.
In Imam, it can be seen signs of the three types of sovereignty. He was the supreme leader and deputy of Imam Mahdi (AS) and was Marja’ of the traditional supremacy in his followers.
And after the adoption of the constitution and the legal institutions of intellectual supremacy and were legal. And because of the wonderful personality and charisma were the people of sovereignty.
Before the establishment of the sovereignty of the Islamic Republic his charisma was more pure. However, until the demise of Imam Khomeini’s charisma sovereignty over their traditional was supremacy of the law. Now he speaks for millions of people in the funeral of his charisma lead the Iranian people’s sovereignty.